Linear low-density polyethylene (LLDPE) is a substantially linear polymer (polyethylene) , with significant numbers of short branches, commonly made by copolymerization of ethylene with longer-chain olefins. Linear low-density polyethylene differs structurally from conventional low-density polyethylene (LDPE) because of the absence of long chain branching. The linearity of LLDPE results from the different manufacturing processes of LLDPE and LDPE. In general, LLDPE is produced at lower temperatures and pressures by copolymerization of ethylene and such higher alpha-olefins as butene, hexene , or octene . The copolymerization process produces a LLDPE polymer that has a narrower molecular weight distribution than conventional LDPE and in combination with the linear structure, significantly different rheological properties.
The production of LLDPE is initiated by transition metal catalysts , particularly Ziegler or Philips type of catalyst. The actual polymerization process can be done either in solution phase or in gas phase reactors. Usually, octene is the comonomer in solution phase while butene and hexene are copolymerized with ethylene in a gas phase reactor. LLDPE has higher tensile strength and higher impact and puncture resistance than does LDPE. It is very flexible and elongates under stress. It can be used to make thinner films, with better environmental stress cracking resistance. It has good resistance to chemicals. It has good electrical properties. However, it is not as easy to process as LDPE, has lower gloss, and narrower range for heat sealing.
LLDPE has penetrated almost all traditional markets for polyethylene; it is used for plastic bags and sheets (where it allows using lower thickness than comparable LDPE), plastic wrap , stretch wrap , pouches, toys, covers, lids, pipes, buckets and containers, covering of cables, geomembranes , and mainly flexible tubing. In 2013, the world market for LLDPE reached a volume of $40 billion.
LLDPE manufactured by using metallocene catalysts is labeled mLLDPE.
|Tensile strength||30 MPa|
|Flexural modulus||0.35 GPa|
|Notched izod||1.06+ kJ/m|
|Elongation at break||500%|
|Strain at yield||20%|
|Max. operating temp.||50 °C|
|Volume resistivity||1016 Ω·cm|
|Dielectric strength||25 MV/m|
|Dissipation factor 1 kHz||909090|
|Dielectric constant 1 kHz||2.3|
|HDT @ 0.45 MPa||45 °C|
|HDT @ 1.80 MPa||37 °C|
|Melting Temp. Range||120 to 160 °C|
|Mould temp. range||22 to 60 °C|